The Jamiat has an organizational network which is spread all over India. The Jamiat has propounded a theological basis for its nationalistic philosophy. Their thesis is that Muslims and non-Muslims have entered upon a mutual contract in India since independence, to establish a secular state. In the meeting of the Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind at Calcutta, in , which was well attended by the students and graduates of Darul Uloom Deoband, a call was made for complete independence of India from the British rule.
Indian National Congress was to declare complete independence as its goal three years later, in its session at Lahore. Majlis-e-Ahrar-ul-Islam, also known in short as Ahrar, was a conservative Sunni Muslim Deobandi political party in the Indian subcontinent during the British Raj, founded in December 29, at Lahore. The party was associated with opposition to Muhammad Ali Jinnah and establishment of an independent Pakistan as well as persecution of the Ahmadiyya community.
Sitting here, we used to make plans for the independence movement, as to how we might drive away the English from this country and how we could make India free from the yoke of slavery of the British Raj. This institution has made great efforts for the freedom of this country". The opposition of the Deobandis to partition was based on the view that in the present times, nations are formed on the basis of homeland and not based on ethnicity or religion.
The Barelvis on the other hand supported the British, did not join the freedom movement and were strong supporters of Jinnah and the Muslim League. According to Barelvi sources, Raza Ahmad Khan Barelvi mooted the idea of Pakistan even before Iqbal and Jinnah, and this was based on his extreme distaste for living under Hindu leadership. The Barelvis participated in movements which made partition inevitable and migrated to Pakistan in large numbers. Muhammad Masud Ahmed. The influence of Deoband outside India. It is known to be the largest Islamic Seminary to attract students from all over the world.
The foreign students have gone on to found many similar mandrasas across South Asia and further afield. The followers of this school of theology are often described as followers of the Deobandi school of thought.
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Deoband and Extremism. To this day, no alumnus of the Darul Uloom Deoband, has ever been implicated in violent struggles anywhere and not a single student has ever been convicted of a crime in India. Outside its Indian birthplace, the Deoband movement has aroused controversy and become entangled with complex sectarian and political conflicts but inside India, it continues its quiet and benign existence as a centre of Islamic knowledge and reformist Islamic thought. Since religious justification was used to prepare civilians for war, madrassas best served the purpose for indoctrination.
The Barelvis opportunistically claim that they were left out because of their peaceful Sufi ideology which is far from the truth. The Barelvis have a record of violence during the partition of the country, when the Deobandis on the other hand, played no role in it, having opposed partition. Before the Deobandi movement of the 19 th century they were all the same - call them Sufis or whatever.
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As a matter of fact everyone was a Sufi including the Kings. The conquest of India can itself be considered as a Sufi conquest. Indians with their caste sysem tend to think of Sufis as equivalent of Brahmins and the Kings as equivalent of Kshatriyas. There is no such division in Islam. Even if you consider the case of Deobandis of Pakistan, out of 46 major Deobandi parties in Pakistan, 10 are militant in nature, with jihadist and sectarian agendas.
Moreover, these militant parties do not enjoy popular support from the mainstream religious clergy. Even on the issue of support for the Taliban, there are diverse contradictory views within the major Deoband political party, Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam. A large faction of the party, led by Maulana Muhammad Khan Sherani and Khaleed Somroo, remained critical of the Taliban, even when they were in power in Afghanistan.
In , concerning the Lal Mosque issue in Islamabad, most of the Deobandi clerics from religious-political parties and the Madressah Board had denounced the activities of the students. Maulana Hassan Jan a leading Sunni Deobandi cleric of Peshawar was the first among three ulema martyred by the terrorists for their opposition to terrorism. Incidentally and tragically, Dr Farooq is also a martyr to the cause of fighting terrorism.
Mislabeling only helps the extremists to spread confusion. Dear Naseer Ahmad saheb, you should have given the full picture. You could have stated the above fact honestly and clearly, if you had also reproduced the following two paragraphs from the same website, which are followed by your quoatations:. These two men were united by a friendship that went back to the s when they had both been private pupils at Delhi College and both became disciples of Hajji Imdad Ullah Makki in the Chishti order and secondarily in the Qadiri, Naqshbandi, and other orders.
Their common commitment to the reform of customary ritual practice, and to an emphasis on hadis scholarship in the Shah Wali Ullah tradition, further cemented the relationship. In , following the Revolt and the subsequent desolation of Delhi, both joined in founding the Darul-Ulum in Deoband.
On this foundation the reformers built, point by point, to convey to their followers the conviction that they conformed to the sunnat.
He was also the object of spiritual devotion, approached through the experience of discipleship to a personal Pir. They believed that Muslims should act in accordance with the injunctions of the Quran and the prophetic sunna recorded in hadis, bypassing the opinions of the four Sunni law schools as embodied in fiqh jurisprudential scholarship. It is better to study the sources directly in light of the application of qiyas analogy and ijma consensus , as the founders of the law schools had themselves once done, they argued, than to depend on commentaries, etc.
This approach to the religious tradition, as Barbara Metcalf notes, could hardly have come been advocated for the uneducated. The Ahle Hadis leadership consisted overwhelmingly of the well-to-do and the well-connected people who had the necessary learning to interpret the texts unaided. In this respect, as in their rejection of taqlid authority of the Sunni law schools , they differed dramatically from the Deobandis who, like the majority of Indian Sunni Muslims, were followers of the Hanafi School.
Catalog Record: Shah Wali Allah : a saint-scholar of Muslim | HathiTrust Digital Library
Yet these two groups to some extent had common intellectual roots in their affiliation to the Delhi reformists of the Shah Wali Ullahi family, in their disapproval of ritual practices such as Urs and other shrine-related practices. About us About the Editor. Forward to friends Print. Hats Off thinks this is an apostate website! Since posting a link in my earlier comment was not enough for you, let me reproduce the article:.
Who and What is a Deobandi? By Observer The following table is a summary of the similarities and differences between the Deobandi, Barelvi and the so called Wahabi. Innovations Strictly no innovation beyond what was crystallized into practice during the time of the Prophet and the first four Caliphs Introduced many innovations. Devour i..
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What's in the Box? Urdu Books. Tazkarat Al Nisaye Nadri. Add to Cart. Add to Wish List. Compare this Product. Doosri Kitaab. A collection of Socio-Satirical stories on our day to day affairs and behavior of society Sitaron se agy Sitara. Tashqand say istanbul. Safarnama ibn Batuta. Tuzq E Babri. In contrast to these two prevailing approaches, the book argues that the eighteenth century was a period of great intellectual activity that witnessed systematic attempts to radically restructure traditional Islamic thought.
These attempts were diverse and extremely successful both in terms of intellectual reception and political and social impact.
Catalog Record: Shah Wali Allah : a saint-scholar of Muslim India | HathiTrust Digital Library
In India, Shah Wali Allah is recognized as the most distinguished Muslim scholar that India ever produced, and mutually opposed schools claim to derive from and best represent his true thought. Similarly, in Yemen, nationalists, Zaydis and Sunnis alike claim Shawkani as their intellectual ancestor. Ibn Fudi is also considered the most central figure in the legacy of Islamic Nigeria and in the Islamist discourse of West Africa, partly as a result of his political success in establishing the Sokoto Caliphate. Generally, these and other thinkers were intellectually assertive even when they were not in positions of power.
A central argument of the book is that the eighteenth century is one of the most vibrant periods in Islamic intellectual history, and this vibrancy was not driven by any influence from Europe. Eighteenth-century thinkers asserted the potential superiority of later generations of Muslims over earlier ones salaf , and then proceeded to demonstrate this superiority; they articulated and espoused an Islam that transcends the boundaries of the schools of law and eliminates sectarian and legal differences; and they advocated an active participation by all Muslims in the definition of Islam and set out to meticulously chart the practical venues for this participation.
The cultural vitality of the eighteenth century was not limited to certain regions, but was spread over most of the Muslim world. None of the key reformers of this tradition was aware of a European intellectual challenge, and there was no intellectual engagement whatsoever by these reformers with European thought. I contend in the book that no other period in Islamic history can boast of intellectual activities that were as self-consciously transformative in their conception.
Eighteenth-century thinkers were fully aware of the intellectual and political significance of their undertakings, and they embarked upon them with great self-confidence and optimism.
- Islam in South Asia!
- Shah Wali-Allah and His Times by Saiyid Athar Abbas Rizvi.
- Offertorium de b.v. Maria Alma Dei creatorius, K272a (K277);
- Uninvited: An Unloved Ones Prequel (The Unloved Ones Prequels, Book 2).
Both the older historiography and the revisionist accounts persist in using Wahhabism as a model for depicting Islamic activism and thought in the eighteenth century. In contrast, I argue that, both in its social manifestation and intellectual content, Wahhabism was the exception rather than the norm of eighteenth-century Islamic thought.
In contrast to the Wahhabi focus on takfir , I sketch the very rich discourse against takfir that prevailed in eighteenth century thought. I also take issue with the popular network thesis that argues that an intellectual network of likeminded, reformist scholars was generated as a result of traveling through and residence and education in Mecca and Medina. I demonstrate the diversity and regional origins of most reform projects in the eighteenth century.
In contrast with the focus on trans-regional networks of scholars, I trace the development of regional reform traditions that drew heavily on local learning and canons, in their most recent manifestation. One of the main ideas advocated by revisionist historians is that of Neo-Sufism, which argues that eighteenth century Islamic thought was characterized by a new brand of reform Sufism which was devoid of spirituality and at the service of Orthodox Islam. Additionally, I draw the outlines of an eighteenth-century tradition of critiques of Sufism. In all the cases I examine, I argue that eighteenth century thinkers conceived of their intellectual undertakings as subversive and dissenting acts, both in relation to political authorities and to established corporate intellectual authorities.
The primary example that I examine is the career of Shawkani and his complex relationship to power.