Now, having taken eastern Poland by force, the Soviets set about subjugating the inhabitants in the most brutal way. There were mass deportations of Poles; several hundred thousand were forcibly sent to Siberia or Kazakhstan where around one in three died.
Katyn: A Crime Without Punishment
Stalin never wanted this land to be part of Poland ever again, and so destroying the potential leaders of an independent Poland was a high priority for him. NKVD Soviet secret police documents show that even in December there seemed to be no plan to murder these people. They were scared of creating a fifth column in the heart of Russia.
So it was taken as a preventive measure, and they were killed. The same way as Soviet citizens were killed earlier on - , and Stalin and the people around him were simply worried that all these prisoners could organize some kind of uprising, especially as these kinds of uprisings were not uncommon in Soviet GULAG prisoners. No one knows exactly why Stalin decided that these Poles should die.
One intriguing possibility is that the Soviets were influenced by the appalling brutality of the Nazis in western Poland. But for whatever reason, Stalin had decided that these citizens of eastern Poland must be killed. Altogether they would shoot 21, people as a consequence of the 5 March directive.
They attacked police stations, civilians, clerks and set fire to forests.
The Creation of the Border Protection Corps in gradually restricted the penetration of these agents and terrorists 4. The pact was to be in force for three years, but in both the Bolsheviks and the Polish government decided to prolong this period to ten years in the face of the danger from Germany ruled by the Nazi party 6.
One of the crucial factors which influenced the relations between Moscow and Warsaw was the situation of about one million Poles who, after the Treaty of Riga was signed, remained beyond the eastern border 7. In the decision to dissolve Marchlewszczyzna was announced.
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According to final reports prepared by the NKVD, about 50, people were forced to leave their country. In Dzierzynszczyzna met with the same fate and it is estimated that about 20, people were deported. During the years of the great terror —, which affected the inhabitants of the whole USSR, an attack on the Poles who lived in the Soviet Ukraine and Belarus occurred. This meant arrests, and executions based on false accusations of spy and sabotage activities. From August till September , , Poles were judged, among whom , were shot by the NKVD, and almost 30, were sent to labour camps or prisons after receiving five to fifteen year sentences The hostility of the USSR authorities towards the Poles during the period between the wars originated, among other things, from the desire to take revenge for the defeat of the Red Army at the Polish-Bolshevik War in and preventing the army from advancing towards the west The invasion of the Red Army took place at the time when the Polish forces were retreating eastwards before the Germans, after an unsuccessful attempt to maintain the territory to the Narew, Vistula nad San rivers.
Those instructions were issued in Kuty, where politicians, commanders, soldiers and civilians escaped across the bridge in Czeremosz to the Romanian bank.
Katyn: A Crime without Punishment
Behind the army, operational-chekist groups of the NKVD followed, which murdered and arrested Polish people. These units formed the security apparatus in occupied places, gained control over the state archives, radio and telephone communications and they disarmed civilians. About , soldiers and officers and thousands of military service representatives were taken captive by the Bolsheviks.
In the majority of cases soldiers and officers did not oppose it. Privates were separated from officers who were transported to Kozelsk and Starobelsk. Policemen were transported mainly to Ostashkov There were 4, captives there, about half of whom were reserve officers. Among the prisoners were the following: the State Police and Military Police officials, secret service and counter-espionage officials, the soldiers of the Border Protection Corps and the employees of the Prison Guard.
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Ostashkov camp was the biggest of the three camps — there were about 6, prisoners of war just before it was disbanded in April From October , the delegated NKVD officials from Moscow heard the prisoners, encouraged them to cooperate and collected data. The majority of those arrested Poles were officers and policemen The functionaries of the NKVD killed each person by shooting in the back of the head.
By 11 May, , 4, Polish citizens had been killed and buried in Katyn death pits. There is an assumption that some officers had been killed in Smolensk Every night in the basement of the building in Dscherschinski Street executioners killed prisoners by shooting in the neck. By 12 May 3, Polish citizens had been killed in Kharkov The executions took place in the basements. In the mornings trucks carried the bodies to the pits in Miednoye village, 30 kilometers further away.
By 22 May, , 6, Polish citizens had been killed in Kalinin. What is worth mentioning when it comes to the Katyn lie, is that the territory of Miednoye cemetery has never belonged to Germany The cemeteries were officially opened in the year Only people from the three camps survived. Some of them owed their rescue to pure chance.
Several people were willing to fight on the Soviet side in case of German invasion. There were also agents among them, the same ones as the NKVD had in the camps. The officers who were arrested in the camps and transported to NKVD Lubyanka prison in Moscow also managed to escape death in the summer of The NKVD kept several thousand arrested officers, clerks, judges, prosecutors, political and social activists in prisons in the so-called Western Ukraine and Western Belarusia.
Katyn: A Crime Without Punishment артикул a.
There were 3, names of people on the so-called Ukrainian list, which was given to Poland by the Security Service of Ukraine in The data of the victims — about 3, prisoners transported from Pinsk, Brest, Baranowicze and Wilejka to Minsk — from the so-called Belarusian list have never been revealed and attempts by the Polish authorities to make the archives available have been unsuccessful so far At least 1, people people from the Ukrainian list were killed and buried in Bykivnia village near Kiev, where about thousand NKVD victims of various nationalities were buried.
When the Ukrainian authorities passed the information about Bykivnia cemetery to Warsaw in , both countries started to study it The dog tag found in is considered to be the most important piece of evidence concerning the burial of Polish officers. The dog tag which was found in the grave in Bykivina had been made according to the standard from the year , and belonged to Company Sergeant Jozef Naglik.
On the comb unearthed were the names of the four soldiers, among whom was the name of Lieutenant-Colonel Bronislaw Szczyradlowski. The names Naglik and Szczyradlowski are on the so-called Ukrainian list. In , mass graves were discovered in Kuropaty Forest, in the suburbs of Minsk, where the NKVD buried between —, Belarusians, Jews and people of various nationalities, including the Poles.
A Crime Without Punishment
Minsk, Thinking about you drives me crazy. However, it is impossible to find out the personal data of the owner of the comb and even if it were possible, one cannot compare them with the Belarusian list, which is still unknown to the Polish side. The Belaursian authorities claim that those who are buried there were murdered by the Germans, and make careful research difficult.
This was done by comparing the list of the people missing in the north-east districts of the Second Polish Republic in and with the NKVD convoy list of the people transported to Minsk prison in the years — There are mass graves in the whole area of the former Soviet Union. Stalin and other leading Bolshevik activists before him ordered the elimination of whole social classes — Russian intelligence and rich farmers, the so-called kulaks; superior servicemen and workers; aristocrats and their servants. They sentenced members of different professions to death, for example, doctors and generals and exterminated people of various nationalities: Russians, Poles, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Volga Germans, Crimean Tatars, Finns, Estonians, Latvians, Chinese — the list is endless The massacre committed in the spring of was carefully considered and organized.
The aim of the communist party was the extermination of those social groups which had been building the bases of the modern Polish nation since the mid-nineteenth century A modern collective national consciousness was developed. The burghers, which was becoming richer and richer, developed modern industry by creating economic structures, on which — Poland reborn after the partition — built its economy Seller information 3dsjinks Contact seller. See other items More See all.
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