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Hellenistic philosophy, for long relatively neglected and unappreciated, has over the last decade been the object of a considerable amount of scholarly attention. Now available in paperback, this volume is a general reference work which pulls the subject together and presents an overview. The History is organised by subject, rather than chronologically or by philosophical school, with sections on It has been written by specialists but is intended to be a source of reference for any student of ancient philosophy, for students of classical antiquity and for students of the philosophy of later periods.

Greek and Latin are used sparingly and always translated in the main text. Aristotle's Politics is widely recognized as one of the classics of the history of political philosophy, and like every other such masterpiece, it is a work about which there is deep division. This book presents an up-to-date overview of the main new directions taken by ancient philosophy in the first century BC, a period in which the dominance exercised in the Hellenistic age by Stoicism, Epicureanism and Academic Scepticism gave way to a more diverse and experimental philosophical scene.

Its development has been much less well understood, but here a strong international team of leading scholars of the subject reconstruct key features of the changed environment. They examine afresh the evidence for some The intensity of renewed study of Aristotle's Categories and Plato's Timaeus is an especially striking outcome of their discussions.

The volume will be indispensable for scholars and students interested in the history of Platonism and Aristotelianism. Direct download 6 more.

In Aristotle's view, Anaxagoras stood out from the other Presocratics as a sober man among the incoherent. This book explores the fragmentary evidence both for Anaxagoras' concept of mind - to which Aristotle was particularly referring - and for his subtle, complex and elusive theory of matter and change. It is concerned with two aspects of his writing in particular: its comparatively high ratio of dogmatic assertion to argument, and a pervasive ambiguity or indeterminacy in the presentation of Anaxagoras' philosophical The problems posed by Anaxagoras' work are examined not only by means of philosophical comparison with what survives of other Presocratics, but in the light of the development of the prose book as a vehicle for the communication of ideas in early Greece.

A book for the scholar of ancient philosophy. The word euboulia, which means excellence in counsel or sound judgement, occurs in only three places in the authentic writings of Plato. The sophist Protagoras makes euboulia the focus of his whole enterprise : What I teach a person is good judgement about his own affairs — how best he may manage his own household; and about the affairs of the city — how he may be most able to handle the business of the city both in action and in Thrasymachus, too, thinks well of euboulia.

But Plato finds little occasion to introduce the concept in developing his own ethical and political philosophy. The one place where he mentions euboulia is in his defence of the thesis that his ideal city possesses the four cardinal virtues. It is normally rather dangerous to draw an inference from the absence or rarity of a word to the absence or rarity of the idea expressed by the word.

I should say a preliminary word about the method I am adopting in this article, mainly to point out that there is nothing whatever remarkable about it. I take myself to be approaching the Politics in accordance with the interpretative canons standard in mainstream historical and Aristotelian scholarship. Compare the study of Aristotle's metaphysics. Everyone would grant that before we start considering whether hule or indeed any other Aristotelian concept anticipates or maps onto some modern notion of matter in any I am simply pursuing the same method with respect to that matrix of concepts in Aristotle's political philosophy within which Miller hopes to locate an anticipation of the idea of rights.

My references to the work of John Pocock in section V have suggested to some readers that I am espousing a form of historical or cultural or Kuhnian relativism which rules Miller's project out of court ab initio. The only form of relativism to which I think this essay commits me is the methodological relativism that I have just described. Material Constitution in Metaphysics.

Metaphysics and Epistemology. Can moral philosophy alter our moral beliefs or our emotions? Does moral scepticism mean making up our own values, or does it leave us without moral commitments at all? Is it possible to find a basis for ethics in human nature? These are some of the main questions explored in this volume, which is devoted to the ethics of the Hellenistic schools of philosophy. Some of the leading scholars in the field have here taken a look at the bases of Their essays, which originated in a conference held at Bad Homburg in , the third in a series of conferences on Hellenistic philosophy, propose important interpretations of the texts, and pose some fascinating problems about the different roles of argument and reason in ancient and modern moral philosophy.

This book will be of interest to moral philosophers and to scholars of Greek philosophy too. Moral Skepticism in Meta-Ethics. It is arguable that the student of the deductions which make up the second part of Plato's Parmenides is today better placed than any of his predecessors, save Aristotle, Speusippus, and other immediate associates of Plato, to understand and evaluate those forbidding pages.

Ways of looking at and handling the matter of the text are available to him which were not open to those who lived before the rise of critical philological scholarship in Europe in the last century, and of He has to hand, too, some pioneering work on the dialogue of recent date. In this paper I argue that the stretch of dialogue from b 2—d 1 in the Cratylus does not belong where it is found in the MSS. I suggest further that at any rate my negative thesis receives some measure of support from the fragments of Proclus' commentary on the dialogue.

This book, first published in , is a general and comprehensive treatment of the political thought of ancient Greece and Rome. It begins with Homer and ends in late antiquity with Christian and pagan reflections on divine and human order. In between come studies of Plato, Aristotle and a host of other major and minor thinkers - poets, historians, philosophers - whose individuality is brought out by extensive quotation. The international team of distinguished scholars assembled by the editors includes historians Some chapters focus mostly on the ancient context of the ideas they are examining, while others explore these ideas as systems of thought which resonate with modern or perennial concerns.

This clearly written volume will long remain an accessible and authoritative guide to Greek and Roman thinking about government and community. This article traces the circumstances, which led to Plato becoming a great philosopher. Gradual unraveling of the article brings out more of young Plato and how he became a part of Socrates' circle. Doing philosophy meant trying to understand how to live the life of a just person: getting rid of illusions about what we know or what we think we want, and coming to see what living well really consists of.

That is the manifesto Socrates enunciates in his speech That is the theme Plato makes him elaborate and defends on a massive scale in the Republic, the longest and most complex of all his works. Fundamental in what he took from Socrates is the idea that philosophy is an inquiry, and inquiry best pursued in conversation with someone else. Socrates in Ancient Greek and Roman Philosophy. Off-campus access.

Using PhilPapers from home? Create an account to enable off-campus access through your institution's proxy server. Nozick's freedom-based critique of distributive justice Wilt Chamberlain argument. Neoliberalism: texts. Neoliberalism: histories. Hayek: texts. General commentaries. Hayek on the market and catallaxy. Hayek on law.

Hayek on liberty. Hayek's evolutionism, epistemology, critique of constructivism and socialism. Left critiques of Hayek and neo-liberalism. Habermas: introductions. Habermas on postmetaphysical thinking. Habermas and human nature. Habermas's discourse ethics. Habermas on recognition. Habermas on solidarity. Habermas on law and democracy. Habermas: communicative freedom. Habermas and multiculturalism.

Habermas and constitutional patritiotism. Habermas and Rawls. Nancy: texts. Nancy: commentaries. Personhood and community, Menkiti-Gyekye debate. Human rights and Afro-communitarianism. Consensual democracy. Afro-comunirarianism and Rawls. Collective intentionality. Collective intentions: general. Collective intentions: collections.

Collective intentions: Scheler. Collective intentions: Tuomela and Miller. Searle on collective intentions. Collective intentions: Bratman. Collective intentions and the settling condition. Collective intentions: Tuomela. Collective intentions: Gilbert. Collective intentions: Gilbert on large-scale collective intentions and political obligation. Collective intentions: Schmid.

Collective action problem, paradoxes of collective rationality, theories of collective rationality. Team reasoning, plural reasoning, joint deliberation, collective reasoning. Team reasoning based accounts of collective intentions. Shared emotions. Social reasons, public reasons. Group agency. Collective intentionality and recognition. Collective intentionality and ethics: general. Collective intentionality and ethics: Sellars.

Collective intentionality and ethics: Tomasello. Collective responsibility. Conservatism: introductory. Conservatism: historically influential statements. Conservatism: contemporary statements. Conservatism: assessments from the left. Communitarianism: introductions. Communitarianism: collections. Communitarianism: surveys. Common good and public interest. Public goods, common-pool resources and irreducibly social goods. MacIntyre's communitarianism. Walzer's communitarianism. Taylor's communitarianism.

Sandel's communitarianism. Social constitution. Liberal-communitarian debate. Liberal conceptions of community. Nationalism, patriotism and partiality. Essential contestability. Surveys of political concepts. Continental political philosophy: introductions and collections. Postmodern politics and ethics. Foucault on 'What is enlightenment? Foucauldian ethics and political philosophy. Levinas and political philosophy. Derrida and political philosophy.

Rorty texts. Rorty commentary. Rorty's political philosophy and ethics, the political implications of Rorty's pragmatism. History of social contract theory. Contractarian and contractualist theories of justice. Constructivism in political philosophy. Constructivism in Rousseau. Democracy: Introductions. Democracy: general books. Democracy: historically influential views.

Conceptions of democracy. What is politics? Representative democracy. Democracy vs. Social choice theory: introductions. Social choice theory and democracy. Agonistic democracy. Consociational democracy. J ustifications of democracy outcome and procedural. Justification of democracy as necessary condition of political legitimacy. Paradox of democracy. Democratic management, sociocracy. Other material on the theory of democracy.


Democracy and capitalism. Equality: introductory. What is the basis for equality? Equality of opportunity and positive discrimination. Equality of what? Desert in the theory of justice. Evolutionary psychology and sociobiology : general. Altruism and cooperation in animals: ethological approaches. Evolutionary psychology: explaining altruism and cooperation - kin selection. Evolutionary psychology: explaining altruism and cooperation - game theory approaches. Evolutionary psychology: explaining altruism and cooperation - multilevel selection. Evolutionary psychology: Tomasello. Evolutionary psychology: explaining norms of morality and justice.

Evolutionary psychology and culture. Evolutionary psychology: critiques. Neuroscience: explaining moral behaviour. Evolutionary psychology and neuroscience based ethics: introductory. Evolutionary psychology and neuroscience based ethics: general. Evolutionary psychology and neuroscience based ethics: the naturalistic fallacy. Contractarianism, constructivism and feminism. Rawls and feminism: general. Rawls and feminism: neutrality.

Freedom: introductory. Freedom: collections. Freedom: the positive-negative freedom distinction. Freedom as absence of constraints by others. Freedom as ability or capability. Measuring freedom of a society. Collective freedom. Freedom as jointly achieved, sociality of freedom. Autonomy: introductions and surveys. Autonomy: collections.

Autonomy: self-experience accounts. Autonomy: real self accounts. Autonomy: higher-order desire, identification and what-we-care-about accounts, Frankfurt. Autonomy : evaluation accounts. Autonomy: plan accounts. Autonomy: historical accounts. Autonomy: reasons-responsive accounts. Autonomy: reasoning-responsive accounts. Relational autonomy, autonomy and feminism. Relational autonomy: dialogue based approaches. Relational autonomy: self-worth approaches.

Autonomy: other. Criticisms of autonomy as an ideal. History of idea of autonomy. Environmentalism: surveys. Environmentalism: collections. Environmentalism: histories. The concept of nature. Environmental ethics. Environmental justice. Climate justice. Anthropocene thinking. Environmental economics. Environmentalism and feminism, eco-feminism. Future generations. Realism and neo-realism. International society, rationalism, and the English School. Nature of international law.

Normative theories of international relations and international law. International ethics: general. International ethics: Marxist and anti-imperialist. Kant's international theory. Kantian cosmopolitanism right. Habermas's international theory. Rawls's international theory: texts. Rawls's international theory: commentary. Rawls's international theory: intervention vs.

International distributive justice, global distributive justice. O'Neill on global justice. Cosmopolitan citizenship, cosmopolitan ethics global identity. Cosmopolitan democracy, global democracy, cosmopolitan political community. Global governance. Global civil society. Ethics of war, just war theory contemporary. Justification of war jus ad bellum. Conduct of war jus in bello. History of international theory in general. History of ethics of war including just war thought.

Journal of the History of Philosophy

Greek and Roman international theory. Aquinas's international theory. Dante's international theory. Gentili's international theory. Vattel's international theory. Rousseau's international theory. Green's international theory. Intervention vs. Justice: introductions. Justice: readers. Justice as mutual advantage. Justice as impartiality. Van Paraijs on social justice and universal basic income. Philosophy of l aw: general. Philosophy of l aw: collections of articles. Command theory of law and legal positivism. Natural law and natural rights theories: historical surveys.

Natural law and natural rights theories: Stoic. Natural law and natural rights theories: Cicero. Natural law and natural rights theories: Aquinas and Thomism. Natural law and natural rights theories: Juadaism and Islam. Natural law and natural rights theories: 17thth century. Natural law theories: contemporary. Dworkin on law. Rule of law. Marx and law. Weberian approach.

The Digital Milliet Project Milliet

Critical approaches. Normative approaches. Post-Totalitarian approaches. Other approaches.

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Liberalism: surveys. Arguments for liberalism. Social liberalism. Public reason. N eutrality: statements. N eutrality: full treatments. Interpretations of neutrality. Subject of neutrality. Neutrality and scepticism about values, and value pluralism. Rawls and neutrality, his argument from justifiability to members. Neutrality as internally inconsistent, conceptions of the good and general interests. Neutrality as incompatible with support for political virtues. Education in political philosophy. Perfectionism in political philosophy.

Perfectionism and principles of social justice. Needs as a basis for justification. Capabilities approach. Property: introductions. Property: fuller treatments. Markets: intoductory. Moral status of the market: surveys and collections. Rawls on property and the market. Coercion and contractual obligation. Markets as exploitative or unjust. Other arguments against markets. Markets as unfree and coercive. Marx's conception of freedom. Argument that markets satisfy contribution principle. Monetisation and commodification of specific goods. Multiculturalism and multi-identity politics, politics of identity, minority rights.

Multiculturalism: collections. Multiculturalism and autonomy. Cultural relativism and human rights. Raz's multiculturalist liberalism. Politics of difference. Deep pluralist politics, democracy and minorities. Political obligation: introductions. Political obligation: ideas of obligation and duty. Political obligation: surveys and collections. Political obligation: historically influential views. Political obligation: utilitarian arguments. Political obligation: consent and self-imposition arguments, democracy and political obligation.

Political obligation: Gilbert. Political obligation: principle of fairness or fair play. Political obligation: natural duty of justice. Political obligation: constitutive rules and conceptual arguments. Political obligation: communitarian accounts. Political obligation: associative accounts Gilbert. Philosophical anarchism. Civil disobedience. Philosophy as insight into an ontological-normative order. Principle of reason-giving thus of philosophy as basic principle of a political order. Philosophy as or as to be replaced by society's collective self-knowledge. Principle of thinking as principle of political action.

Philosophy as counteracting the perversion of language by those in power. Recognition: collections. Recognition: single-author books. Recognition and intersubjectivity: histories. Recognition: the concept. Recognition as ontological. Recognition as ethical.

Self-esteem, self-respect, dignity. Recognition of identities, politics of recognition. Recognition, work and class. Empathy: psychological approaches. Empathy: phenomenological approaches. Empathy: critiques. Self-consciousness: general. Self-consciousness: collections. Adverbial account of consciousness. Higher order theory of consciousness. Eliminativism about consciousness of experience, or about self-consciousness.

De se attitudes. Social construction of the self. Relational agency. Social anti-individualism. Althusser on recognition. Aristotle on self-consciousness. Aristotle and Plato on recognition. Bermudez on non-conceptual self-awareness. Brentano on self-consciousness. Buber on recognition. Castaneda and Shoemaker on self-reference. Chisholm on self-consciousness. Cognitive science and intersubjectivity. Darwall and the second-personal standpoint. Dusing on self-consciousness. Fanon on recognition. Fichte on self-consciousness and on recognition.

Frank on self-consciousness. Fukuyama on recognition and on the end of history. Gadamer on intersubjectivity. Gurwitsch on consciousness and intersubjectivity. Heidegger on self-consciousness and Dasein. Heidegger on intersubjectivy and recognition. Heidegger on authenticity. Heidegger on freedom.

Heidegger on Gelassenheit. Henrich on self-consciousness. Henry on self-consciousness. Honneth's theory of recognition. Honneth-Fraser debate: recognition and distributive justice. Honneth's theory of social freedom. Honneth on recognition and ideology. Husserl on self-consciousness. Husserl on intersubjectivity, empathy and recognition. Husserl on lifeworld and history. Indian and Bhuddist philosophers on self-consciousness.

Leibniz, Wolff, Merian and self-consciousness. Levinas on recognition: texts. Levinas on recognition: commentary. Lipps on recognition. Locke on consciousness and self-consciousness. Marx on recognition. Malebranche on recognition. Mead on recognition. Merleau-Ponty on recognition. Phenomenological approaches to self-consciousness: general.

Phenomenological approaches to intersubjectivity and recognition: general. Ricoeur on recognition. Rousseau on recognition. Sartre on consciousnessand the self. Sartre on recognition. Scheler on empathy. Schelling on self-consciousness. Searle on self-consciousness. Schopenhauer on empathy. Stueber on empathy. Strawson Galen on self-consciousness. Strawson Peter on recognition and reactive attitudes. Tugendhat on self-consciousness. Zahavi on consciousness and self-consciousness. Zahavi's apperception principle. Zahavi on intersubjectivity. History of republicanism.

Machiavelli and republicanism. Other classical republican thinkers. Contemporary r epublicanism: neo-Athenian or civic humanist strand. Neo-Roman republicanism and democracy. Civil society and the public sphere. Deliberative democracy, discursive democracy, discourse democracy. Rights: introductions. Rights: collections. Concept of rights. Interest vs. Rights as founded in equality: Rawls and Dworkin. Natural rights, human rights. Natural rights as founded in collective rationality. Condorcet's paradox and Arrow's theorem: introductions.

Condorcet's paradox and other voting paradoxes : full expositons. Arrow's theorem: full expositions. Implications of social choice theory. Surveys and introductions. Histories of socialist thought. Anthologies of socialist thought. Socialist texts. British socialism. French socialism and communism. Fourier and Considerant. German socialism excluding Marx. American socialism.

Socialist humanism. Contemporary socialist and radical egalitarian political philosophy. Left -libertarianism. Market socialism. Cohen's socialism. Commonism and communisation. Solidarity economy and social economy. Social ontology: general. Social norms. Searle on social institutions. Other collective acceptance views of social institutions. Social institutions: convention and equilibrium-based views.

Social kinds. Social pathology: general. Social pathology: recognition-based approaches. Honneth on social pathology. Social pathogenesis. Fromm and social pathogenesis. Civic friendship contemporary. Solidarity: general. Solidarity: the concept. Solidarity: historical texts. Solidarity: histories of the idea. Solidarity in sociological theory. Solidarity in political philosophy. Solidarity and justice. Communal solidarity, community.

Solidarity as necessarily local. Human and global solidarity. Solidarity and feminism. Solidarity and work. Solidarity: critiques. What is the state? Bodin on sovereignty. Power: coercion-based and structural views. Power: Foucauldian views. Authority and reason. Utilitiaranism in political philosophy: introductions. Utilitarianism and equality.

Utilitarianism and rights. Baier, K. Raphael, D. Plant, R. Sterba, J. Hampton, J. Knowles, D. Thomas, G. Geuss, R. Swift, A. Christman, J. Miller, D. Robinson, D. Bird, C. Stevens, R. Laslett, P. Quinton, A. Flathman, R. Waldron, J. Goodin, R. Simon, R.

Matravers, D.

Aristotle's Political Theory

Kristeller, P. Tully ed. Meaning and Context: Quentin Skinner and his Critics La Capra, D. Rorty, R. Rorty, J. Skinner eds Philosophy in History. Richter, M. Pocock, J. Janaway, C. Taylor, C. Sabine, G. Wolin, S. Plamenatz, J. Strauss, L.

Who We Are:

Tannenbaum, D. Boucher, D. White, M. Farrell, H. Howard, D. Carlyle, A. Wilks, M. Ullman, W. Skinner, Q. Coleman, J. Ferry, L. Philip Renaut [] Political Philosophy, Vol. Levine, A. Marshall, I. Malchow, M. Dershowitz, A. Mysicka, Stanislav 'Protagoras and his theory of social contract', Filozofia 66 3. Republic of Plato , esp. Foster, M. Gouldner, A. Hall, R. Melling, D. Barker, E. Popper, K. Nettleship, R. Cross, R.

White, N. Hart, H. Campbell, T. Justice , ch. Levinson, R. Crombie, I. Vlastos, G. Gosling, J. Williams, B. Lee, A. Mourelatos and R. Rorty eds Exegesis and Argument. North ed Interpretations of Plato. Moline, J. Annas, J. Prichard, H. Vlastos ed Plato vol. Kraut, R. Kraut R. Kraut ed. The Cambridge Companion to Plato. Norman, Richard The Moral Philosophers , 2nd edition, ch. Brown, Lesley 'Glaucon's challenge, rational egoism and ordinary morality', in D.

Cairns and F. Plato, Republic, b-c, a, b. Plato, Phaedo. Plato, Phaedrus.